Studies on The Manufacturing Procedure of Book Binding Leather

The decayed leather binding with a flaking or powdery surface and a broken spine is an all too common sight in many book collections. Bindings in this condition will remain a perpetual and ever increasing problem unless binders ensure the leather they use has a long term resistance to acidic atmospheric pollutants. Binders tend to select leather on aesthetic appearance and the way the leather handles during the binding operations. Insufficient consideration is given to the durability of the leather, but unfortunately there is little to guide the purchaser with regard to this property.

However the last eight years have seen the development of a combination tannage involving both vegetable tannins and aluminum salts that confers on the binding leather a markedly increased resistance to atmospheric pollutants. Such archival quality leathers with this semi-aluminum tannage are now being produced commercially and this paper describes the rigorous testing to which such leathers have been subjected in order to demonstrate their superior durability.

Book-binding leather are more softy usually full vegetable tanned leathers made from goat, sheep and calf skins. Book-binding leather should be-
  • Book-binding leather must have very good tensile strength.
  • Book-binding leather must have resistance to perspiration fastness.
  • The grain finished leathers should be well let out to give a smooth grain surface.
  • The grain-break should be free from looseness and pipyness.
  • Book-binding have water -proof.
  • Book-binding have by lasting 100-150 years.
  • Book-binding leather have good tearing strength.
  • Aesthetic feel.
  • Used dye should not be pH sensitive.
  • Light fastness not less than rating 4 on the blue wool scale.
  • The fat content should not be less than 4% of the leather weight.
We are living new millenniums. Technology is growing rich every day. People demand is increasing. Many competitors are waiting in market to fulfill their demands. If we want to survive in this competition we have to acquire modern technology. Technology never now without successful experiment.

It is a fact that we are accustomed to use leather goods in our life to a large extent. Further more using leather goods are also a matter of status and prestige in many countries. As observed, it is easy to make book binding with leather but difficult to maintain it’s quality. For this reason, I took low graded goat skin and turned it to quality book binding leather. All the way of my project work I always give a though of quality and production cost.

Foreign currency can be gained in a significant way which may develop the country economy as raw materials and labor are two most important factor but available in our country.

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Marketing Strategies for Export and Local Market of Footwear in Bangladesh

The Footwear Industry in Bangladesh is at its early stage of development. 'there was no mechanized Footwear Industry in the country until early 1900's and the footwear manufacturing was limited to cottage and family level small factories. The first mechanized industry, Bata Shoe Co. (Bangladesh) Ltd., a multinational enterprise, carte into being in the then East Pakistan in 1962. Followed by Eastern Progressive Shot industries (LPSI) and Bengal Leather which used to produce mainly for domestic supply. Indeed, the shoe industry started featuring in Bangladesh in 1990 with the introduction of encouraging government policy measures of granting fiscal and financial incentives for production of leather footwear in the country for export. There has been a rapid growth in footwear production capacity. Both complete leather shoes and sports shoes manufacturing for export during last decade. 'there arc now about 42 mechanized, and over 4.500 non-mechanized small and cottage level units in Bangladesh producing various types of footwear for both domestic market and export. Most of the mechanized units are export oriented.

Global trade in leather sector is around US $ 65 billion yearly. Bangladesh share only 0.60 % (US $ 390 million) while is by improving finished leather output say by 20% additionally the export in leather trade is expected to be within the region of US $ 500 million. This means, the potentials in the leather sector is enormous. But the concentration of the tanneries in Hazaribagh location is certainly and hole up in further improving the tannery operation at large.

The export earnings from leather products have increased significantly. Footwear sector has the potentiality of earning a huge amount of foreign exchange to develop our country economy as well. Globalization has made the market competitive .Nevertheless, availability of raw materials; lowest labor can draw extra advantages for Bangladesh footwear export. With the arrangements of quality raw materials, well trained workforce in management, marketing toward global aspect, pollution free separate leather state, common facility center for SME, leather board and leather research institute are the factors to get the highest feedback from this sector.

Bangladesh needs entrepreneurs for this developing sector. It is a fact that lack of expert is a unique problem for this sector. On the other hand, B.Sc in footwear technology, the new subject and the first addition in Bangladesh College of Leather Technology may be the possible solution to get a way to develop the sector in a significant way.

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Sole Bonding System of PVC Soling Materials With Different Upper Materials

Over the last 40 years there has been a major change in soling materials used in the Footwear trade. Leather has been the traditional soling material for Footwear. But in 1980 only about 5% of shoes have leather soles. Nowadays most soles are made of rubber or plastics which are classed as synthetic soling materials. So new types of soling needs new types of adhesion method or technique with different types of upper materials.

The scientific study of adhesion is quite new and its name, Zygology, is scarcely known. Zygology is the science of joining things which includes the study of adhesion and of welding, riveting and all forms of mechanical jointing. It includes the principle of -

Specific Adhesion: It gives a chemical bond between the adhesive and the surfaces being joined. The adhesive, therefore, does not have to penetrate the material but is bonded to the material by chemical action.

Mechanical Adhesion: It gives a physical bond which the adhesive `keys' in to the fibers or structures of the material to be bonded.

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Studies on The Manufacturing of Standard Passport Case

Passport case is a kind of small leather goods used for carrying passport and some small articles like credit card, identity card, stamp, coin etc.

Man has gone a long way from the days of primitiveness and so has gone leather. Today the role of leather is varied and vast. The products made from leather lend themselves to an enormous variety of both useful and fashionable items, which bear a need and asset in modern life. A extensive range of colors and designs widen the selection range which encourage the prospective consumers to put this products multiphase, be it fashionable or functional. Hence the study of materials is very important in the manufacture of leather goods.

Present and Future Prospect of Passport Case

A passport being a long time useable article needs to be protected from rubbing, exposure to dust, dirt, water, blazing sun etc. At present only a few people have got used to using it but in future its use will get and upward trend.

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Studies on The Quality Control Procedure of Cutting Department in Footwear Industry

To increase the productivity of any footwear industry, the cutting department is most important department. Because to prepare any type of shoe, quality starts from cutting department. Every cutter has knowledge about quality of materials and cutting direction to make quality shoe. The productivity of cutting department depends on cutter. For this reason a special bonus can pay to every cutter. For example, we can pay bonus according to new pointing system, which is also, increase productivity, material saved, quality control and skilled worker. To apply this new pointing system, the productivity of any footwear industry can increased.

In order to produce products like footwear resources in the form of man, machine, material and money are required. And the more efficient use of resources is ensured, the more goods and services will be produced. By this process of efficient use and effective utilization of resources the economic system can attain self-sustain growth. And in fact, this efficient use and effective utilization of resources is truly productivity, which is essential element and successful strategy for the well-being of the individuals. Productivity improvement is not just doing things better but doing the right things better. The right things or more specifically factors influencing productivity is the prime concern for productivity program managers. Inter-linked and interrelationship among these factors are vital and should be balanced and co-ordinate into an integrated whole. These influencing factors are macro and variable relating to external and internal factors as well as job related, resource related and environment related factors.

Footwear sector has its drawbacks due to some invaluable facilities and tremendous prospect. This sector has the potentiality of earning a lot of foreign exchange after the fulfillment of local demand. But the sector needs careful handling as well as proper directions and guidelines to heading towards the foreign market to deserve the best among the Shoe exporting countries.

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Studies on The Effects of Enzyme in Leather Processing

The use of enzymes in leather processing has a long and colorful history and a brief outline of this fascinating subject may perhaps help to put our present preoccupations into some perspective. Enzyme dependent processes have been employed in leather making for thousands of years. The enzymatic degradation of individual components of skins such as derma tin soleplate proteoglycan or elastin that can occur during bating process to achieve specific production objects, for example, the development of rapid unhairing liming processes or the production of more open or relaxed fiber structure.

The enzymatic formulations used in the beam house are [1] soaking sides for salted and dry raw hides and preserved fur skin [2] unhairing formulations for all types of hides and skins.[3]alkaline bates for scud removal and opening up of fiber structure [4]acid bates for blue chrome and fur skins [5] enzymatic degreasing agents for greasy skins and [6] enzymatic formulations for by production utilization.

Tanning is a process of converting participle outer covering of animals to no participle leathers with definite physical, chemical and biological properties so that they can be used in our daily life and industries. Before going into details, if necessary to discuss a little bit about the composition of hides and skins.

Reasons for using enzyme
  1. Improve the quality.
  2. Get a better yield.
  3. Environment friendly.
Among these, protein is the only most important material for leather making 64 percent to 94 percent of the solid matters of the hides and skins are tot fibrous proteins known as albumin and musing are found in hides and skins. During soaking liming, bating, most of soluble proteins and fibrous proteins like keratin, reticular etc are removed. Then the white collagen fibers are tanned to usable leather.

Most of the enzymes used in the tannery processing are still of the proteolysis type, required to selectively degrade the peptide bonds of the different non collagen us proteins of hides and skins whilst avoiding any damage to the collagen itself.

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Studies on The Manufacturing of CD Box

CD Box plays an important part in leather goods industry. The global market for leather goods is very rich and increasing day by day on the basis of product supplement. Most of the leather products and goods industry manufacture a huge amount of CD box cover using box work procedure, as it has a great value in local and international market. So it is desirable for me to complete a project work on studies on the construction and development of CD box cover using box work procedure for the international market. In my project work I look after every section of CD box cover using box work procedure manufacturing process,, firstly pattern making, leather cutting, cementing, assembling, then quality checking and lastly approving.

This works help increase manufacturing knowledge of leather goods and products. To earn practical knowledge for reducing cost, wastage and time, to appraise how well resources are utilized, to improve the cutting, clicking, stitching and assembling process to reveal problem area. To be efficient and successful in my position in a reputed organization where it is possible to explore talent and potentials to the fullest and thus make a contribution of the organization’s growth as well as personal growth and move to self actualization.

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Fashionable Court Shoe by Using Stingray Fish

The ladies court shoe style has been with us for several centuries: a simple, sleek, slip on shoe with a heel of various heights and shapes. The court shoe style itself has been subject to thousands of fashion variation and treatments. The court shoe received great impetus with the invention of elasticized goring in 1837 by j. sparkes hall, boot maker to queen victoria the new hugfit of the court shoe with out benefit of fastening delighted the queen and the court shoe rose rapidly in popularity.

It has an unbroken top line and the top line will be bellow the vamp point. The name derived from a style of shoe once worn “at court”.

It is also called “pump shoe” why do we call it “pump”? the name derived from the carriage foot men of England, who ware called “pump”. they wore a standard uniform shoe, a plain, simple slip on.

When the British gentry adopted the style tough in much more elaborate form, they retained the word “pump” in French, the word “pompe” means an ornaments, though there seems to be no link with the pump shoe style.

Stingray is a cartilaginous fish of the family Dasyatidae or Urolophidae, having a flattened diamond shaped body and a poisonous spine at the base of the tail. It’s mainly sea fish. It’s available in our country. But raw Stingray fish leather is mostly found in Thailand, Australia and some other country.

Stingray leather has become a new fashion statement trend in the world leather peerless style to accessories. Stingray leather creates a wide new range of possibilities for original designs for wallets, belts, shoes, garments and other leather accessories market.

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Manufacturing Process and Unit Operation of A Gilet

Leather has played in important role in day to day life of mankind from immemorial. From ancient civilization to modern times, leather has been used by the human race in one form on the other its daily life, and it is discovered and rediscovered every where and it seems that mankind can hardly do without this useful material.

Modernization and increasing value addition were the watch words for achieving accelerated export grown in the leather industry. The project report has covered in confined form from the very beginning operation of leather garments (Gilet) selection of leather to the finishing operation packing.


Designing is an important process in the manufacture of leather goods. In the principal of designing, a good design should be easy for fabrication & selling.

The design should be simple when it is converted into production as much as possible, because production & productivity are the sky factors for successful commercial venture. Assembling of too many components for multi-purpose functions must be avoided as much as possible. It affects the important aspects of designing namely, size, shape, structure attraction & value appearance. In good designing, techniques & technical skills very important. A good design should not impart the functions of the products for which they are manufactured.

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Production of Fashionable Ladies Sandal

For most of us living in Bangladesh, the idea of the fashion is dear to all. When we speak on fashion we usually think of a fun and frivolous word of beautiful people in exotic, often unwearable sandal or shoe and that's all. We viewed the word of fashion as entertainment.

But now fashion is not entertainment or funny matter. Its now need. You should be fashionable or at least aware about the current fashion. Otherwise you will not treated as a smart one. Do you want to be that?

By this project work, the fashion of the ladies sandal will be observed. The materials that are commonly used to make sandal sometimes used only for functional way. The using leather is very traditional way and it has a great functional property. But this project try to prove the materials not in common such like leather also has very aesthetic look and also fulfill the functional requirement.

This project compares the uncommon materials with the common one. The denim cloth or gunny bag or velvet cloth could be the alternative of the leather, synthetic materials, not in functional way but in fashionable way.

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Studies on The Production of Oxford Shoe

Over centuries art of shoe making is getting developed and various methods shoe construction is being popular. Bangladesh is a developing country. The cost of labors is chief. There is a great demand for casual shoe not only in the world but also overall our country. Now-a-days most people want quality type footwear beyond his income limit, also to maintain social status. Quality means degree of attractiveness and zero defects as well. To produce quality type footwear one has to pay careful attention during construction of that product. Also to produce quality type casual shoe needs high quality materials. About 60% gents as well as the different ages of people also use casual type shoe. If we produce attractive type design and better quality product, footwear industry will be more profitable.

In this project work paper, an attempt is made to provide a fundamental concept on the footwear, history, pattern making, choice of last, materials etc.

In this study, I am trying to produce the better quality and cheaper casual shoe. I have used leather for upper and lining materials. As a result the price of the shoe is more or less higher than that of we demand. But if we use synthetic or fabric type material, the price will be cheaper.

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Application of Organometallic Compounds in Leather Processing

History of Organometallic Compounds

Organometallic CompoundsEarly developments in organometallic chemistry include Louis Claude Cadet synthesis of methyl arsenic compounds related to cacodyl, William Christopher Zeise's platinum-ethylene complex, Edward Frankland discovery of dimethyl zinc, Ludwig Mond discovery of Ni(CO)4, and Victor Grignard organomagnesium compounds. The abundant and diverse products from coal and petroleum led to Ziegler-Natta, Fischer-Tropsch, hydroformylation catalysis which employ CO, H2, and alkenes as feedstocks and ligands.

Recognition of organometallic chemistry as a distinct subfield culminated in the Nobel Prizes to Ernst Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson for work on metallocenes. In 2005, Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock shared the Nobel Prize for metal-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

Organometallic Compounds

Organometallic compounds are also known as organo-inorganics, metallo-organics and metalorganics. Organometallic compounds are distinguished by the prefix "organo-" e.g. organopalladium compounds. Examples of such organometallic compounds include all Gilman and Grignard reagents which contain lithium and copper, and magnesium respectively. Tetracarbonyl nickel, and ferrocene are examples of organometallic compounds containing transition metals.

In addition to the traditional metals and semimetals, elements
such as boron, silicon, arsenic, and selenium are considered to form organometallic compounds. Examples include organomagnesium compounds such as iodo(methyl)magnesium MeMgI, diethylmagnesium (Et2Mg); organolithium compounds such as butyllithium (BuLi), organozinc compounds such as chloro(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)zinc (ClZnCH2C(=O)OEt); organocopper compounds such as lithium dimethylcuprate (Li+[CuMe2]); and organoborane compounds such as triethylborane (Et3B).

Many organometallic compounds exist in biological systems. For example, hemoglobin and myoglobin contain an iron center bonded to a porphyrin ring; magnesium is the center of a chlorin ring in chlorophyll. The specialized field of such inorganic compounds is known as bioinorganic chemistry.

Bangladesh has been a source of raw materials, ranging from hides and skins at the beginning of mostly crust and some finished leather. Since 1990-91, Bangladesh has started exporting footwear and other leather goods. Export earning from leather goods, were negligible from 1972-73 through 1989-90 averaging only Tk. 0.114 million per annum. But it has increased considerably since 1990-91 and has reached around TK. 700 million in 1993-94. It is significant that the demand of shoe upper leather is increasing in the international Market.

Keeping in mind both the points the international demand and availability of raw hides and skins. I have intended to develop a recipe for the production of shoe upper leather. Moreover, Production capacity in finished leather and leather goods is developed in Bangladesh, new jobs will be acquired, and markets will be accessed.

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Design and Product Development of Ladies Jacket Using Related Software

From time immemorial, the arts and crafts of Bangladesh are closely linked to our culture and heritage. Leather and leather products have always been a part of that heritage and after the emergence of an independent Bangladesh in 1971; the industry received a fresh impetus. Today the country earns a sizable amount of foreign exchange every year through export of leather and leather products to a number of overseas markets.

Leather & leather products industry has a potential & significant impact towards the economy of Bangladesh. The optimization in the use of resources, both human & materials is the growth potential for the economy of any country. Bangladesh possesses distinct comparative advantages foe the use of both human resources & locally available raw materials like leather. The challenge ahead is thus to attain certain objectives to remove the obstacles for the growth of a healthy export oriented leather products industry in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh entered the field of leather fashion garments with items of distinction and prestige. Leather garments can play an important role in exporting sector & can earn a lot of foreign exchange. Garments main raw material, leather is available in Bangladesh. So, it is a great opportunity to establish leather garment industry as like garments industry & play role in the economy of Bangladesh as like garment industry in Bangladesh.

Ladies jacket is an article that has both functional and decorative purpose. It is mainly used in the countries having long duration winter. After confirm the design, I have manufactured these products with the aid of software named Luggage Master (Shoe Master) -Esprite v6.03 in the section of pattern drawing and cutting.

The software provides 100% pattern accuracy and by this way it also assured the product development to a greater extent.

If the proper utilization of the software is ensured, leather garments can be one of the best export items.

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Production of Sued Leather from Wet Salted Goat Skin

A term taken from the French, "gants de Su├Ęde" (Swedish gloves), and applied to a leather finished on the flesh side by buffering so as to raise a velvet-like nap. The typical suede leather is produced from the smaller skins, such as calfskin, kidskin, lambskin and goatskin, although cowhide has also been used.

The nap is produced by buffing or wheeling the surface on the flesh side, or the split side of flesh splits; velvet suedes, however, are buffed on the grain side. A common criterion of good suede leather is that the fibers of the nap should be of uniform length and tightly packed together, in order to give a resilience to the nap so that it does not readily shown fingermarks. c The firmness of the nap depends upon the density and compactness of the fiber structure. Velvet suedes are finer than flesh suedes and a younger animal, such as a SLUNK , produces an even finer suede.

A principal concern in making suede leather is to retain the fine nap and still produce a soft leather; however, the leather must not be made soft by means of improper FAT-LIQUORING, because even a small excess of oil will produce a greasy suede nap.

Suede leather, often tooled in blind, was used in England as early as the 17th century, and in the 18th and early 19th centuries in blank book binding.

Two distinct layers will be seen-
  1. Thin upper velvety layer, and
  2. Thick lower compact layer.
The thin grain layer, compact but highly splitted and practically free from interfibrillary materials is like the flesh layer. The reticular sheaths around the collagen fiber bundles are completely ruptured and the fibers are separated from each other in the upper layer while in the middle portion the reticular sheaths remain intact even though sufficient degree of splitting inside the fiber bundles are maintained.


Suede shoe upper leather is one of the most fashionable items in the world market. The suede shoe upper is mainly used in cold countries where the leather has to perform the role of shoe upper and garment together. In suede leather no looseness is desire and on the other hand it has to be soft in nature. So the control is very important from beam house to finishing.

The review on production of suede upper leather indicates that it requires a good understanding of science and technology of leather making, constant vigil and care during processing and abundant common sense in suitability monitoring the fee stock and the process.

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Bag Leather from Lower Grade Cow Hide

Leathers which are used for the manufacturing of different types of bag are known as bag leather. Mostly these are chrome or vegetable tanned from lower grade raw stock having thickness 1.0-1.5 mm (or above for some particular article).

Combination tanning is carried out with a combination of chrome, vegetable, synthetic or other tanning agents to improve the fullness and firmness and some other desire properties of shoe upper. The main combinations are semi-chrome and chrome-retanned leather. Leather is first tanned with vegetable and then retanned with chrome tanning agent is semi chrome retanned leather. Chrome retanned leather is softer and flexible and mostly used as shoe uppers.


  1. The physical appearance of finished leather should look attractive with clear grain.

  2. The leather must possess a soft and mellow ‘handle’ with fine and tight ‘break’ on the grain. The must be stable against repeated tensile and compressive strains and bending.

  3. The leather must possess high strength properties i.e. tensile strength, stitch tear strength, split tear strength, elongation at break etc.

  4. The leather must possess the hygienic property of being permeable to water vapor and air.

  5. The finish on the leather should have high adhesion and must be durable against wet and dry rubbing.

  6. Should be highly color fast.

  7. Should have dry and wet rub fastness.



The leather should have elegant attractive appearance. Elegant appearance requires that the grain surface must be distinguishable from that of a leather substitute and colors, gloss and grain appearance should be attractive and appeal to the buyers of the bag. The leather should retain the colour, should not stain wearer's clothes and should have ability to take polish. Not only looks but also the feel of the leather by touch in the bag are important.


The most important requirements for bag leather are good adhesion (wet and dry) rub fastness and high temperature performance during plating, hot air drying and lasting. Strength and stretch of upper materials used in shoe making are good guides for their suitability. Low strength and stretch of upper leather and consider unsuitable for use as shoe uppers.

The important physical properties of upper leather which determine its suitability use in shoe making are:
  1. Tensile strength

  2. Stitch tear strength

  3. Split tear strength

  4. Elongation at break

  5. Distension at grain crack

Modern worldwide leather market is now a days very fond of bag leather. Finished leather is also an intermediate product. Which serves as a raw material for finished leather is therefore, fashion driven, requiring more responsiveness to the market, whereas crust leather is more a commodity type product. Bangladesh currently exports leather bags to Europe and Japan.

As production capacity in finished leather and leather goods is developed in Bangladesh, new jobs will be acquired, and markets will be accessed. But in our country’s cow hide quality is not good for many reasons, but the lower grade raw stock can be upgraded to a higher level by using different tanning and finishing techniques.

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